Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a disorder of the heart characterized by
rapid and chaotic beating of the atria and is the most prevalent
cardiac arrhythmia, affecting four million patients in the Western
World.  AF is one of the leading causes of stroke and short-term
hospitalizations with 400,000 new cases annually.  Despite its
prevalence, there are no current, practical clinical options to
effectively and safely treat AF. Catheter ablation to resolve AF’s
underlying cause, aberrant electrical signals originating on the left
side of the heart near or within the pulmonary veins, has been
restricted by safety concerns. As a result, the standard treatments for
AF are limited to various costly drug regimens that offer only a
palliative (non-curative) approach.